|Author||Yixuan Wang, Cheng Cheng & Yanjie Bian|
Researchers have attributed the low wages of Chinese female migrant workers to the independent effects of gender and hukou (household registration). Using an intersectional perspective that recognizes the interplay of gender, birthplace, and hukou, this paper identifies six different groups of workers in China’s urban labor market. Both in-depth interviews and survey data demonstrate that from 2003 to 2013, a decade seen as one of China’s continuous economic growth and rising income inequality, female migrant workers earned the lowest wages among the six groups, and their income disadvantages were more than double the disadvantages of gender and hukou combined. This trend was persistent during this decade even after the workers’ education, party membership, and labor market segregation were taken into account. These results imply a within-job wage differential for female migrant workers and a discriminatory wage policy that is tacitly observed by both state and private employers.
ABSTRACT IN SIMPLIFIED CHINESE
许多现有研究将中国女性农民工的低收入归咎于性别和户口的独立性影响。本文运用交叉性理论视角，考察中国女性农民工低收入的真正原因。该理论视角承认不同人口要素之间的互动性。因此，本文通过性别、出生地以及户口性质三种身份属性，将中国劳动力市场中的劳动者分为六个组群，并对这六个组群进行收入上的比较。本文的数据来源包括深度访谈以及问卷调查。研究发现，从 2003 年到 2013 年的十年间，中国经济持续增长，同时，中国也不得不面临日益增长的收入不平等。在六个组群中，女性农民工的收入最低，而这一收入劣势，比来自性别和来自户口的两种收入劣势的加总还要多。这一趋势，即便在控制了劳动者的教育程度、党员身份和劳动力市场分割等因素后，仍旧稳定。这一结果表明，女性农民工遭遇着具有歧视性的工资政策，身处收入不平等的境遇之中。